These are the beauty brands in South Africa that don’t test on animals

Animal testing is still a huge problem in the beauty industry. The biggest reason is the fact that China’s Food and Drug Administration requires certain types of cosmetics to be tested on animals before being sold into the market – and China is one of the biggest markets in the world. Luckily it looks like these regulatory processes will soon change.

As a point of clarity, in the case of China it is mostly their regulatory bodies that do the testing, not the cosmetics companies (though you could argue that the company is condoning the practice). It is also worth noting that in January 2017 Peta announced that the Chinese FDA “has waived its requirement for certain cosmetics to be registered with the agency, which will mean that animal tests for “non–special use” cosmetics will no longer automatically be required.”**

I decided that instead of naming and shaming, I would instead point you towards the brands that DO NOT test on animals and available locally. Hopefully this list will grow as more and more brands make the shift.

These are only the  brands you can find on South African shores. I compiled this list using information found on PETA’s website, leapingbunny.org and the Beauty Without Cruelty Humane Guide, as well as information I gathered directly from the brands. I understand that different organisations have different requirements and rules, so it is worth researching the brands you support to ensure you are comfortable with their practices.

I would like to make this a growing list:

If you know of any brands that should be on here, please pop them into the comments and I will add them.

I have also started adding info on whether the brands are vegetarian or vegan friendly, local, and contain natural and organic ingredients. I will continue to refine this.

If a brand is marked as vegetarian/vegan it means they have products that are vegan friendly but not all are, so make sure you check the label.

Aesop
African Extracts Rooibos – Local, Vegetarian
African Indigenous – Local
Africa Organics – Local, Vegan, Natural, Certified Organic
Africology – Local, Natural
Afriderm
Aloe Unique – Local
Apostrophe Bath & Body – Local, Vegan
Back 2 Nature – Local, Natural, Vegan
Badger Balm – Natural / Certified Organic
Beaucience – Local
Beautyblender
Bee Pure – Local, Natural, Vegetarian
Biomedical Emporium – Local
Body Treats – Local, Natural, Vegan
Caribbean Tan
Catrice Cosmetics
Charlotte Rhys – Local, Vegan
Charwhite – Natural, Vegan
Cherubs – Local
Comfort Zone
Davines
Decleor – Natural
Dermalogica*
Dr. Hauschka – Natural/Organic, Vegetarian/Vegan
Dr. Organic – Natural/Organic, Vegetarian
Earthsap – Local, Natural
Eco Diva – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegetarian/Vegan
Ecologic Skincare
Eco Products – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan
Environ – Local
Esse – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan
Essence
Exuviance by Neostrata
Giovanni – Natural
Good Stuff – Vegetarian/Vegan
GOSH
Hey Gorgeous – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegetarian/Vegan
H&M
Inglot – Vegan
Inoar
iS Clinical
Jane Iredale
Juice Beauty – Natural/Organic, Vegan
L.A Girl
Lulu & Marula – Local, Natural, Vegetarian
LUSH – Vegetarian
Nimue
NeoStrata
Noughty Haircare – Vegan
NYX*
Ofra Cosmetics
Oh-Lief – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegetarian
Oh So Heavenly – Local, Vegetarian/Vegan
Optiphi – Local
Ordinary Skincare
Palladio
Palmer’s
Paul Mitchell
Paula’s Choice
Perricone MD
Physician’s Formula
Pure Beginnings – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan
Rain Africa – Local, Natural, Vegetarian/Vegan
RégimA – Local
Sally Hansen*
Savane – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan
Simply Bee – Local, Natural
Skin Creamery – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegetarian
SkinMedica
Skoon – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan/Vegetarian
Smashbox*
SOiL – Local, Natural/Organic, Vegan
SpaRitual – Vegan
Stila Cosmetics
TanLab – Local, Vegan
Team Dr Joseph – Natural
The Body Shop*
TheBalm
Theranaka – Local, Natural/Organic
Theravine – Local
Unwash
Urban Decay*
Victorian Garden – Local, Natural/Organic
Vita Liberata – Natural
Wet n Wild
Woolworths Private Label & Earthfriendly products
Young Solution


* These brands do not test on animals but they form part of larger parent companies that are not entirely cruelty free. Make sure you research individual brands before you buy. 

** “Non-functional” or “non-special use cosmetics” include shampoo, body wash, make-up and certain skin care products. (read more here). Special use cosmetics include products for hair growth, hair dye, hair perm, hair removal, breast shaping, fitness, deodorizing, spots removal and sun block; Cosmetics with skin-whitening and skin pigmentation reduction claims are also classified as special use cosmetics (anti-freckle category)

According to the Guidance on Regulations Compliance of Cosmetic Products in China 2016, “The CFDA has authorized 21 labs to perform hygiene safety tests and 6 labs to conduct human safety tests. Hygiene safety tests include physio-chemical, microbiological and toxicological studies, which are mandatory for non-special use cosmetics. For special use cosmetics, human safety tests are also required. […] So far, all toxicological tests are performed in animals in terms of OECD methods. As we know, animal testing can be waived for domestic non special use cosmetics from 30th Jun 2014.”

106 Comments

  1. Annemarie Henson May 19, 2017 at 2:55 pm

    I’m pretty sure Woolworths Beauty is also cruelty free.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 22, 2017 at 7:18 am

      Thank you!

      Reply
        1. Malherbe Liezel May 26, 2017 at 8:51 am

          Hey Toni. Thanks for the input. I referenced PETA’s site for the international list, and BWCSA for the local list. I will reference yours as well. I understand the issue around The Body Shop, but I think it is up to each person to decide whether they feel comfortable supporting them. In terms of the laws in China, the product must still be tested on animals before being sold in that country. So yes, the products we buy might not have been tested on animals, but the company still does it.

          Reply
          1. Toni May 26, 2017 at 1:02 pm

            I am the national chairperson for Beauty Without Cruelty SA, so I don’t ‘have a list’
            I know this is well meant, but confuses the public as to the truth. Of course people must make their own choices, but such confictling and inaccurate information doesn’t help anyone, even though intentions are good.
            Furthermore, animal testing still takes places in countries other than China, and L’Oréal may be working to eliminate this, but they themselves continue to animal test outside of the EU anyway and have made no effort to stop.

    2. Ruchay May 24, 2017 at 6:17 pm

      They are BWC approved… But made in China 😔

      Reply
      1. Toni May 26, 2017 at 8:16 am

        Morning. Chinese law confirms products sold Outside of China does not require animal testing.

        Reply
    3. Melissa May 31, 2017 at 4:28 am

      Mina (3ina) is a new brand in RSA that apparently don’t test on animals either.

      As for The Body Shop, I had enquired about their policy regarding testing, given they’re now owned by L’Oreal, & for the first time ever, I received no response…so I’m pretty sure they do test.

      Reply
      1. Malherbe Liezel May 31, 2017 at 7:10 am

        mmm, I am trying to find confirmation on 3ina but no luck so far. Will update the list once I have clarity 🙂

        Reply
  2. Annemarie Henson May 19, 2017 at 7:36 pm

    Kat Von D is moving to full vegan and is completely cruelty free, not sure if it is available in SA though

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 22, 2017 at 7:18 am

      Thanks! I don’t think they’re in SA yet, but hoping they arrive soon.

      Reply
  3. TraceyB May 21, 2017 at 6:08 am

    Himalaya is an Indian beautey brand and is cruelty and animal free.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 22, 2017 at 7:17 am

      Yay thanks for letting me know Tracey!

      Reply
  4. Kathryn May 21, 2017 at 8:01 am

    African Extracts is cruelty free too

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 22, 2017 at 7:17 am

      Awesome, thanks!

      Reply
  5. Januschka Rohrer May 22, 2017 at 4:47 pm

    TheraVine is cruelty free!

    Reply
  6. Chereen May 22, 2017 at 5:23 pm

    Love this! Body Treats is another local, cruelty-free and vegan beauty brand that’s worth checking out 🙂

    Reply
  7. Jannis May 23, 2017 at 7:26 pm

    Hey, thanks for the list! Just to let you know, Body Shop falls under the Estee Lauder group which is unfortunately not cruelty free. : (

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 25, 2017 at 8:06 am

      Hey Jannis. Actually The Body Shop falls under L’Oreal and while some brands in the group are not cruelty free, The Body Shop and Urban Decay are.

      Reply
      1. Dani May 25, 2017 at 9:06 am

        Hi! Depends how strict you want to be. The Body Shop itself does not, however the holding company does. Supporting thus indirectly supports the holding company.

        Reply
        1. Malherbe Liezel May 25, 2017 at 9:40 am

          Definitely! I think in general it is important to research the brands you use and make sure you’re comfortable with their ethics.

          Reply
    2. Beryl Scott May 26, 2017 at 8:54 am

      Jannis, Body Shop belongs to L’Oreal.

      Reply
  8. Angelique May 24, 2017 at 8:20 am

    Kryolan is also cruelty free and is available in SA. Best makeup brand!

    Reply
  9. Sarah May 24, 2017 at 9:03 am

    I believe that Kryolan is also cruelty free 🙂

    Reply
  10. Calynhil May 24, 2017 at 4:31 pm

    Thanks for the list!😁 which of these brands make shampoo/conditioner?

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 25, 2017 at 8:05 am

      @Calynhil Inoar makes great cruelty-free hair care. You can also try LUSH (they have a shampoo bar that requires to packaging waste!), Aesop, The Body Shop, Ahava, Rain Africa, Paul Mitchell and Noughty.

      Reply
    2. Leandré du Plessis October 31, 2017 at 11:26 am

      Hi Palmer does. They have an amazing shampoo and condotioner

      Reply
  11. Sarah bentz May 25, 2017 at 5:40 am

    Pureskin (Pureskin.co.za) natural, vegan and completely cruelty free and absolutely incredible make up and beauty products 🙂

    Reply
  12. Heidi May 25, 2017 at 6:26 am

    Annique Rooibos products

    Reply
  13. Lauren May 25, 2017 at 6:38 pm

    Victorian Garden products are local and cruelty free. They have a range of skin and hair care products that are really awesome.

    Reply
    1. Lauren May 25, 2017 at 7:29 pm

      Oh and also Innoxa and Young Solution

      Reply
      1. Beryl Scott May 26, 2017 at 8:55 am

        Innoxa has been discontinued.

        Reply
        1. Lauren May 26, 2017 at 7:22 pm

          So they have. Pity

          Reply
  14. Sarah May 25, 2017 at 8:50 pm

    Helllo great article. Have you looked into naturalmente hair products – Renee Short from Gentle Approach salon in Cape Town would be a great person to make contact with.

    Reply
  15. Kristin May 25, 2017 at 8:55 pm

    Hi there, I think Nimue may also be cruelty free. The answer to the China question is still not 100% clear – would love to know if you’d be able to confirm.

    Reply
  16. Monique May 25, 2017 at 10:10 pm

    Bonafide Beards for men only test on husbands 🙂
    We are in the process of being BWC Certified & some of our products are vegan friendly too, like our vegan beard balm, cleansing bars and fully synthetic beard brushes!
    http://www.bonafidebeards.com

    Reply
  17. Des May 26, 2017 at 5:21 am

    Good Stuff Is NOT vegan – they use ingredients like yoghurt, milk and honey in some of their products!

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 26, 2017 at 8:47 am

      Thanks Des, I have adjusted the labeling. According to their site their lines are vegan, apart from their BEE range.

      Reply
  18. Mia May 26, 2017 at 7:18 am

    Skin Ceuticsls

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 26, 2017 at 8:46 am

      Hey Mia. I will need to confirm this, unfortunately I don’t think they are completely cruelty free.

      Reply
  19. Natalie May 26, 2017 at 8:01 am

    Thank you for the list! 🙂 It’s so good to be aware and purchase responsibly!
    Is there no local brand that offers natural, organic, vegan/vegetarian and biodegradable skincare products, like face wash and moisturiser?

    Reply
  20. Sara May 26, 2017 at 8:23 am

    Gaia. Locally made. Organic. And it smells so great I often just open my products for a sniff.

    Reply
  21. Beryl Scott May 26, 2017 at 8:57 am

    Most of the products suggested have not provided proof of their claims.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 26, 2017 at 9:06 am

      Hey Beryl. I got most of the local brands from the BWCSA list on humanebeauty.co.za. The rest is endorsed by PETA internationally. If you have specific queries, please do elaborate on the brands so that I can investigate.

      Reply
  22. Crystal Miles May 27, 2017 at 5:25 am

    Sh’zen is a local product for skin and body. It’s made using essential oils and not tested on animals

    Reply
  23. Mariska May 27, 2017 at 12:53 pm

    Hi Liezel, Heliocare and Epi-Max do not test on animals 😉

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 29, 2017 at 2:52 pm

      Thanks Mariska! Can you perhaps email me more info on Heliocare? I can’t find any confirmation of their status?

      Reply
  24. Cate moore May 28, 2017 at 4:42 am

    What about Elixir?im sure that cruelty free and local.

    Reply
  25. Charlene May 28, 2017 at 8:25 pm

    Hannon also does not test on animals as far as I know and the Rooibos skin range in SA is also sporting the anti-cruelty label.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 29, 2017 at 2:52 pm

      Thanks Charlene. Yes African Extracts Rooibos is cruelty free – or are you referring to another range? I am looking into Hannon 🙂

      Reply
  26. Aliya May 29, 2017 at 10:27 am

    Sh’zen products are also local, vegan and cruelty free

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 29, 2017 at 2:49 pm

      That’s my understanding too but I can’t seem to find any clear statement around this on the brand’s site or any Cruelty-Free sites. Will need to investigate.

      Reply
  27. Nikita Ramkissoon May 29, 2017 at 2:40 pm

    During my research, I found Black Up is also cruelty-free and so is 3ina. Not so sure about whether they’re vegetarian or vegan. I stand to be corrected on Black Up though. That’s just what I found.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 29, 2017 at 2:47 pm

      Thanks for letting me know! I will check it out!

      Reply
  28. Adele May 29, 2017 at 6:33 pm

    Africology is also cruelty free

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 30, 2017 at 6:29 am

      Thanks for reminding me! They are so lovely!

      Reply
  29. Leana May 29, 2017 at 8:01 pm

    RegimA is south-african and do not test on animals

    Reply
  30. Janet May 29, 2017 at 11:29 pm

    The Tan Lab is cruelty-free, vegan friendly and is made in KZN, South Africa! Amazing brand, check them out … http://www.thetanlab.co.za or @thetanlab on social media platforms.
    Fab article, thank you! *

    Reply
  31. Sally Rutherford May 30, 2017 at 3:39 pm

    ELIXIR SKINCARE is a fab locally formulated and produced (in Cape Town) aromatherapy-based range that is cruelty-free and very, very, very kind to your skin! The results are excellent, their prices gentle on your pocket and their service very responsive and personal. I couldn’t recommend them more highly. http://elixirskincare.com/

    Reply
  32. Terri May 30, 2017 at 6:17 pm

    Kevin Murphy is also cruelty free

    Reply
  33. Ola May 30, 2017 at 8:36 pm

    Comfort Zone and Davines. Also consider the fact that companies might be cruelty free but the suppliers the get their base and active ingredients from are not.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 31, 2017 at 6:50 am

      Thanks Ola!

      Reply
  34. Roberta May 31, 2017 at 12:28 am

    Nimue skincare and it’s a South African brand

    Reply
  35. Sharon Buser May 31, 2017 at 7:24 am

    Bee Natural LOCAL VEGAN ORGANIC

    Reply
  36. Shae May 31, 2017 at 7:26 am

    “Benefit” is a new brand, which is part of the LVMH group, available at Edgars stores. Their make up is easy and convenient for everyday use and they also don’t test on animals. They support the “fund for alternatives to animal testing” as well.

    Reply
  37. Teresa May 31, 2017 at 11:20 am

    I’m sure Sh’Zen is also not tested on animals – can anyone confirm?
    Made with plant extracts & essential oils & made in SA…so not available on international market.

    Reply
  38. Jolene May 31, 2017 at 1:14 pm

    Clarins claims to be 100% plant-based and not test on animals – I personally contacted them here in SA and they confrimed (without verification) that they don’t. I’d really appreciate a direct answer on this – as I’m not convnced.

    Same applies to MorrocanOil.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel May 31, 2017 at 2:51 pm

      Hey Jolene. I know that Peta had an issue with Clarins in 2016, and they do sell in China (you can read their article here: http://www.peta.org.uk/blog/are-clinique-clarins-dior-and-more-illegally-marketing-cosmetics-tested-on-animals/). It’s all very grey because even though the companies themselves don’t test on animals, or use ingredients that have been tested on animals, their products are tested by Chinese FDA regulatory bodies before being allowed into the market. So unless Clarins has found a loophole I wouldn’t be comfortable putting them on the list. It’s a shame, they do incredible work otherwise in conservation.

      Reply
      1. Jolene May 31, 2017 at 3:14 pm

        Thank you! No Clarins for me… explains the merky and non-public statement of no animal testing!

        Reply
    2. Leandré du Plessis October 31, 2017 at 11:31 am

      No they are on Peta list for animal testing. So is Clinique.

      Reply
  39. Hettie Pringle May 31, 2017 at 2:36 pm

    Bulbinella

    Reply
  40. Jolene May 31, 2017 at 3:12 pm

    Also Oridinary Skincare. Great product locally made in Cape Town and specifically made for sensitive skins… they claim to not test on animals but not clear on the certifications. Would be great to verify

    Reply
  41. KJ May 31, 2017 at 3:44 pm

    Red Dane Skincare for Men is animal friendly, not tested on animals, cruelty free, paraben free, contains natural ingredients, locally made in South Africa, suitable for vegans, suitable for all skin types.
    http://www.reddane.co.za

    Reply
  42. Mika May 31, 2017 at 4:57 pm

    You’ve left out Ecologic Skin Care. BWC endorsed and approved by the Vegan Society. Local and independent brand with love from me! 💕✨

    Reply
  43. Chaune May 31, 2017 at 8:42 pm

    Sh’zen doesn’t test on animals either

    Reply
  44. Lynn June 1, 2017 at 8:38 pm

    You should most definitely add Simplybee products – they do not test their products on animals. Fantastic brand – especially for skins that’s extra sensitive

    Reply
  45. Leny Duarte June 2, 2017 at 11:40 pm

    Herbalife skin range is not tested on animals and is an awesome product

    Reply
  46. Jane Gomersall June 5, 2017 at 1:34 pm

    Thank you for the list. Found it extremely useful.
    Can u let me know if there is a similar list for household products?

    Reply
  47. Loren Loubser June 6, 2017 at 2:36 pm

    Swiitch Beauty is locally made in SA and cruelty free.
    Flormar is Cruelty free and available in SA

    Reply
  48. Toni Brockhoven June 7, 2017 at 2:29 pm

    Please see http://www.humaneguide.co.za for almost 70 brands which have PROVEN their non-animal testing claims. EVERY brand says they don’t animal test, but often you’ll find in the small print they test ‘where required to do so by law’ which often means they choose to use ingredients that are tested for pharmeceutical use, for worker or food safety etc. It doesn’t matter what a brand says, it’s what they will prove!
    Buying a brand which is owned by an animal testing company means you may as well just buy L’Oreal, which received almost 50 million pounds over two years from the Body Shop.
    The only other guide to use is the internationally recognised Leaping Bunny guide, https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/
    Using the PETA list, if one is serious about using non animal tested products, is a waste of tiem; their criteria for inclusion is so low as to be meaningless.
    As there is no charge ever, to consumer or company, there is no reason for any brand making humane manufacture claims not to apply to BWC for listing. Unless of course, they don’t comply.

    Reply
  49. TERRY June 10, 2017 at 2:37 pm

    Esse is certified organic by the EU Responsible Person certification as well as EcoCert certified. I’ved used their products for a while now an they are great especially for the cruelty free and eco concious person.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel June 12, 2017 at 6:51 am

      Hey Terry. Esse is on list already, they are wonderful. Thanks for sharing!

      Reply
  50. TERRY June 10, 2017 at 5:17 pm

    Sorry, I left out a few important facts
    Certified organic – Ecocert France
    Supports Fair Trade – PhytoTrade Africa
    Registered by Beauty Without Cruelty
    Registered with the Vegan Society of Europe
    Is also on PETA’s list of cruelty free companies

    Reply
  51. Nthabiseng June 25, 2017 at 8:25 am

    Please check out Corium Skincare. It’s local and organic.

    Reply
  52. Yolandi June 26, 2017 at 2:56 pm

    Hi Liezel. Thanx for the great list. Annique’s products are also endorsed by the Beauty Without Cruelty organisation. x

    Reply
  53. Amanda Currie August 15, 2017 at 6:15 am

    Hannon is a local product and they are animal friendly.

    Reply
  54. Kate September 7, 2017 at 10:34 am

    Hi there,

    I live in Cape Town and make a range of high quality natural bath, body and beauty products only using organically produced or wildcrafted ingredients (besides the bath salts the rest of the products are basically carriers and essential oils). All hand-made and designed by myself. I only have a Facebook Page (@HeartTreeNatural) and Instagram account (heart_tree_natural) at the moment but working on a website that will hopefully be up by the end of October. My family, friends and I are the only guinea pigs involved.

    Reply
  55. Marinette Roux September 7, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    I saw on Instagram yesterday that The Body Shop has a petition against animal testing… So I’m assuming that they then want to move away from being associated with parent companies that are not completely cruelty free, as you say? Not entirely sure, but maybe go check it out for an update :).
    Thanks for this post, very helpful!!

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel September 8, 2017 at 1:53 pm

      They are still part of L’Oréal as far as I know, but yes, as The Body Shop they are against animal testing.

      Reply
      1. Marinette September 10, 2017 at 10:44 am

        Oh okay, did not know that haha! Also have a look at Beauty Treats – they’re a Los Angeles based company, and PETA have listed them as cruelty free (although they’re not vegan, they don’t test on animals and they feature the peta logo). I found it at DisChem.

        Reply
        1. Malherbe Liezel September 12, 2017 at 12:53 pm

          Will do! Thanks so much 🙂

          Reply
  56. Loren October 20, 2017 at 12:40 pm

    Hi there, thanks for the list. Just wanted to mention that L A Girl sold at Dischem is made in China. All products sold in China have to be tested on animals, so on principle I won’t buy it. Seems a bit hypocritical to call yourself a cruelty free company and then to manufacture your products in China ?

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel October 23, 2017 at 9:05 am

      Thanks Loren. As far as I understand through my research, makeup in general doesn’t have to go through the same testing methods as certain types of skincare, so in general it isn’t tested on animals even if it is sold in china. I put a bit more info on this lower down in the article.

      Reply
  57. Tehne Wright November 4, 2017 at 8:13 am

    Though I think it’s a nice sentiment Beauty without cruelly south africa spends an incredible amount of time and money compiling a list that is proven to be cruelty free. The companies are required to require proof and documentation and beauty without cruelty regularly checks up on them to ensure they stick to the correct practices. Their list is my absolute go to for ethical buying it can be found at http://www.humaneguide.co.za/ I would strongly recommend any south Africans use this list

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel November 6, 2017 at 6:41 am

      I totally agree Tehne, and I used them as a base for this post. I just found they referred to South African brands, and not to international brands that are also sold locally. This is a combination of lists I’ve found, or research I have done. Of course I still urge people to do their own research about all the products they purchase.

      Reply
  58. Vanessa Callow November 4, 2017 at 4:53 pm

    O SO Heavenly brand from Clicks is also a beauty without cruelty brand

    Reply
  59. Engela November 5, 2017 at 12:29 pm

    The South African Lamelle Research Laboratories? They tweeted in 2014 that they are cruelty-free. Just curious whether BWC has confirmed this.

    Reply
    1. Malherbe Liezel November 6, 2017 at 6:42 am

      Lamelle isn’t on the BWC list, so I’m not sure about their status.

      Reply

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